Agra is a city in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located on the Yamuna (Jumna) River in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, about 125 miles (200 kilometers) southeast of Delhi.
The ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata made an early reference to an “Agravana,” and Ptolemy is claimed to have named the site “Agra.” In the early 16th century, Sultan Sikandar of the Lod dynasty established the city as the capital of the Delhi sultanate.
During several times of the Mughal empire, Agra also functioned as the capital. The city was conquered by the Jats, the Marathas, the Mughals, the ruler of Gwalior, and, finally, the British in 1803. From 1833 to 1868, it was the capital of Agra (later North-Western) province and one of the principal centers of the Indian Mutiny.